The traditional Tubatulabal language area is along the upper Kern River, northeast of Bakersfield. In pre-contact times, there may have been as many as 1,000 speakers of Tubatulabal (Kroeber 1925). In the 21st century, there are less than a dozen first-language speakers (Hinton 1993).
Tubatulabal (also written “Tübatulabal” and called “Pahkanapul” or “Paka’anil”) is a Uto-Aztecan language. The other languages in this family spoken in California include Numic languages (Chemehuevi-Southern Paiute-Ute, Kawaiisu, Mono, Northern Paiute, and Panamint) and the Takic languages (Cahuilla, Cupeño, Gabrielino, Juaneño, Kitanemuk, Luiseño, Serrano, and Tataviam).
Selected archival materials at Berkeley
Selected materials in other archives
- The American Philosophical Society: “Tübatulabal”
- Smithsonian Institution: “John Peabody Harrington papers: Tubatulabal”
- Marean, Lindsay, Michael Ahland, Bethany Lycan, Sergio Sandoval Sanchez, and Nicholas Sinetos. 2021. Pahka’anil (Tübatulabal): Two Texts. International Journal of American Linguistics, 87:51-81. [PDF - may not be publicly available]
- Smith, Charles R. 1978. Tubatulabal. In Robert F. Heizer (ed.), California, 437-445. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
- Voegelin, Charles F. 1935. Tübatulabal grammar. University of California Publications in American Anthropology and Ethnology 34: 55-190. [PDF]
- Voegelin, Charles F. 1935. Tübatulabal texts. University of California Publications in American Anthropology and Ethnology 34: 191-246. [PDF]
- Voegelin, C. F. 1958. Working dictionary of Tübatulabal. International Journal of American Linguistics 24: 221-228. [PDF]