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    • Collection number: 2019-34
    • Primary contributors: Sidanere Xavante (consultant), Utebrewê Xavante (consultant), Vinícius Xavante (consultant), Nicholas Carrick (researcher, donor), Teela Huff (researcher, donor), Myriam Lapierre (researcher, donor)
    • Additional contributors: Gonzalo Wamarito (consultant), Silvestre Xavante (consultant)
    • Language: Xavante (xav)
    • Dates: 2019-
    • Historical information: Xavante (also known as A’uwẽ) has approximately 22,000 speakers in multiple indigenous territories, including Marechal Rondom, Maraiwatsede, São Marcos, Pimentel Barbosa, Areões and Sangradouro/Volta Grande, within the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso (Graham, 2020). Bilingualism within these Xavante communities varies widely; some speech communities remain largely monolingual, while other communities have speakers fluent in both Xavante and Brazillian Portuguese. With growing demarcation of indigenous lands, contact from non-indigenous Brazillians is higher than ever before, and there is an ever-increasing number of bilingual Xavante-Portuguese speakers within these speech communities.
      At the beginning of the 18th century, due to the discovery of gold in the state of Goiás, a large number of non-indigenous communities began to occupy Xavante indigeous lands in search of this valuable mineral. The violent encroachment of non-indigenous people on Xavante lands forced the relocation of indigneous groups in the area. A subset of the Xavante ancestors crossed to the west bank of the Araguaia River, while others remained on the east bank, creating a geographic division that resulted in the two Central Jê languages: Xavante and Xerente. The materials in this collection were recorded in the Xavante village of Êtenhiritipá, located approximately two hours from Canarana, the nearest Brazilian Portuguese speaking town. This close proximity to non-indigenous peoples has increased the language shift within this community, as younger speakers are now often bilingual in Xavante and Portuguese.
      Graham, L. (2020, June 26). Xavante. Retrieved October 15, 2020, from
    • Scope and content: Sound recordings and field notes.
    • Repository: Survey of California and Other Indian Languages
    • Preferred citation: Sidanere Xavante, Utebrewê Xavante, Vinícius Xavante, Nicholas Carrick, Teela Huff, and Myriam Lapierre. Xavante Field Materials, 2019-34, Survey of California and Other Indian Languages, University of California, Berkeley,

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